The calyx is the part of the flower that forms first, and eventually becomes the base that supports the rest of the flower.
Within the cannabis calyx, you will find all the important reproductive organs, including the pistil and stigmas. You will also find resin glands, which are responsible for producing cannabinoids, including THC.
A class of diverse, naturally occurring chemical compounds that influence CB1 and CB2 cell receptors in the brain and body.
In the raw cannabis plant, which has been unheated and uncured, cannabinoids are found in their acidic form. Instead of calling these molecules cannabinoids, they are considered cannabinoid acids. These acids are the precursors to both dominant and sub-cannabinoids. They do not produce intoxicating effects. The two most common cannabinoid acids are THCA and CBDA, which are the precursors to THC and CBD, respectively.
Sub-cannabinoids are cannabinoids that are less abundant in the cannabis plant. Apart from THC and CBD, some of the most common sub cannabinoids include CBN, CBG, and THCV. None of these cannabinoids produce a psychotropic experience that is as strong as THC. These sub-cannabinoids are expected to have medicinal properties, though they have been studied far less than the more dominant cannabinoids.
A plant genus with three subspecies, including Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, and Cannabis ruderalis. Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica have intoxicating properties and are used for both medical and recreational purposes. Cannabis ruderalis is naturally lower in THC and is not usually farmed. The Cannabis plant is native to Asia but is grown all around the world to produce hemp and medicine, textiles, food and more.
A cannabis-naive patient is a first-time consumer. This patient will have a low tolerance for cannabis medicines and will need to titrate up to their optimal therapeutic dose. This consumer is the most likely to experience negative side effects from cannabis products. When introducing a cannabis-naive patient to cannabis, that patient must slowly titrate up to their optimal therapeutic dose.
A caregiver is a person that has been designated to provide for a medical cannabis patient.
Qualifications and regulations for caregivers vary by state law. In general, however, a caregiver can pick up cannabis products and/or grow cannabis plants in their homes on behalf of a patient. A caregiver is not legally allowed to consume the cannabis products that they acquire or cultivate for another.
Cartridge (a.k.a. cart)
A small container prefilled with cannabis extracts/oils that are rich in cannabis’ active ingredients. Cartridges come in multiple formats. Some snap into place magnetically while others come threaded and twist into a battery.
A type of cannabis concentrate that is very potent with extremely high levels of THC. It is often made by dipping buds in hash oil and sprinkling them with kief.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of many cannabinoids produced by cannabis, second only to THC in abundance. CBD is not intoxicating, meaning it does not create the “euphoric high” of THC.
Cannabis plants that display chemical characteristics are called chemovars. Thus far, it is accepted that at least three different chemovars dominant today’s cannabis market. These three chemovars are:
A THC-dominant chemovar contains mostly THC relative to other chemical constituents found in cannabis resin. Until recently, most cannabis cultivars in illicit, recreational, and medical markets were high-THC varieties. These varieties range in psychoactive potential depending on the amount of THC present in the cannabis product.
Dried flower typically contains between 8 and 25 percent of the cannabinoid. Based on data from 2014, the average percentage of THC in high-THC varieties fell at 12 percent total (Elsohly et al, 2016). Some particularly impressive cultivars may feature beyond 30 percent of the psychoactive. These high-producing cultivars are recommended for consumers who are comfortable with intoxicating cannabis and who have prior experience with THC.
As mentioned above, cannabis cultivars are often dominant in one cannabinoid or another. Though, some cultivars can be dominant in both. A CBD-dominant cultivar will contain more CBD than THC. While there are more THC-dominant cultivars than CBD- dominant ones, today’s CBD varieties often feature anywhere from 6 to over 20 percent CBD.
Some chemovars, however, will present more of a mixed cannabinoid ratio. These chemovars will contain equal or sizable proportions of both CBD and THC. Some mixed chemovars display a one-to-one ratio of THC to CBD. Others may feature a two-to-one, one-to-two, or another combination. These mixed chemovars will produce more wide- ranging effects, depending on the unique ratio of a given sample. The higher the THC content, the greater the likelihood that the product or flower will produce a psychoactive effect.
The cannabis plant traditionally breeds by exchanging genetic material between both male and female plants. In some cases, when a plant is under stress and this type of breeding becomes impossible, a plant will develop hermaphroditism. In commercial and home operations, growers have another way of reproducing plant. A clipping can be taken from a “mother” plant and this clipping will grow to be a genetic copy of the plant it was taken from. This clipping is a clone. This allows for more control over the genetic makeup of the plant and ensures that a plant will showcase the same phenotypic characteristics as the mother plant.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the solvents used to extract cannabis resin. CO2 extracts tend to have a syrup-like texture and feature a golden to dark amber coloration. CO2 is among the safest solvents to use to extract cannabis resin.
A term for some cannabis concentrates that are made by using CO2 as a solvent to extract terpenes, cannabinoids, and other beneficial compounds from the cannabis plant to create products for vaping and dabbing.
The central flower cluster that forms at the top of the main stems in mature female cannabis plants. Buds that grow on the cola are the largest and are prized for their high concentrations of active resin. Their size and luster make them a popular choice for cannabis photography.
Highly concentrated cannabis extracts, with potencies reaching as high as 98% THC. They are produced by extracting cannabinoids and terpenes from cannabis flower in a process that typically uses a solvent, like CO2 or butane. The effects of concentrates are felt almost immediately after inhalation.
A rolling paper that comes in the shape of a cone that you fill with ground flower to make a joint. It tends to be an easier alternative to rolling a joint with regular papers.
In cannabis cultivation, the process of curing is the method used to properly age buds before they are ready for consumption. When plants are moved from the drying stage to the curing stage at the right time, the flavor, potency, and desirable characteristics are greatly improved.